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Study Guide Two

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STUDY GUIDE FOR GENERAL BIOLOGY ONE

 

 

Study Guide Two

The following study guide provides study questions and vocabulary that you should master prior to exams.

 

 

 Study Questions for Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration

 

1.        What is the overall significance (or “purpose”) of cellular respiration?  Be able to discuss the differences between the anaerobic breakdown of glucose and the aerobic breakdown of glucose.

 

2.        Be able to summarize the reactions of glycolysis, formation of acetyl CoA, citric acid cycle, electron transport, chemiosmosis  and fermentation (where does each take place, what are the reactants and net products of each?).

 

3.        Be able to write the complete, balanced general formula for respiration. What is phosphorylation? Where does ATP formation take place within a cell?

 

4.        Be able to list and describe the steps of glycolysis, acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, the electron transport, chemiosmosis, and fermentation.

 

 

 

Be able to define and use the following terms:


 

cellular respiration

citric acid

oxaloacetic acid

citric acid cycle

aerobic respiration

pyruvic acid

fermentation

Krebs cycle

anaerobic respiration

acetyl CoA

ATP synthetase

cytochomes

lactic acid  fermentation

decarboxylation

glycolysis

alpha-ketogluteric acid

electron transport chain

dehydrogenation

citric acid cycle

succinic acid

alcohol fermentation

chemiosmosis

glyceralaldehyde-3-phosphate

matrix

redox Reaction

oxidation

reduction

inner-membrane H+pump complex

NADH

FADH2

cristae

ethyl acohol

 

 


 

 

Study Questions for Chapter 7: Photosynthesis  (because of missed snow days this chapter will be omitted on the 2nd test)

 

1.        What is the overall significance (or “purpose”) of  photosynthesis?  Be able to discuss the differences between light-dependent and light independent reactions.

 

2.        Be able to summarize the reactions and results of the "WATER-SPLITTING" photosystem , "NADPH-PRODUCING" photosystem ,CALVIN CYCLE and ELECTRON TRANSFER SYSTEM.

 

3.        Be able to write the balanced general formula for photosynthesis. What is the C3, C4 and CAM pathway?

 

4.        Be able to list and describe the steps in the photosystems and carbon fixation. 

 

 

 

Be able to define and use the following terms:


 

water splitting reaction

stroma

carbon fixation

rubisco

quantum level

reaction center

RuBP

thylakoid

stomata

ground state

electron transport chain

3-PGA

grana

CAM

visible spectrum

primary electron acceptor

G3P

Chlorophyll a

C-four

wave frequency

thylakoid compartment

NADPH

accessory pigments

photorespiration

chloroplast

electromagnetic spectrum

photon

wavelength

excited state

photon

photosystem I

calvin cycle

greenhouse effect

light reactions

photosystem II

 


 

 

 Study Questions for Chapter 8: Mitosis, and Meiosis

 

1.        How is the DNA of a eukaryotic cell organized during cell division?  Be able to describe the organization of DNA and histone proteins in a “typical” eukaryotic chromosome.  What is a nucleosome?

 

2.        How does mitotic cellular division differ from meiotic cellular division?

 

3.        Be able to list and describe the portions of the cell cycle of a eukaryotic cell.  What events occur in G1, S, and G2?

 

4.        Be able to list and describe the stages of mitosis. What events characterize each of these stages?

 

5.        Be able to describe cytokinesis (in animal cells) by the formation of a cleavage furrow.  Be able to describe cytokinesis (in plant cells) by the formation of a cell plate.

 

6.        Be able to list and describe the stages of meiosis. What events characterize each of these stages?  How are these stages similar (or dissimilar) to the stages of mitosis?

 

7.        What is the importance of meiosis in respect to an organism’s life cycle?  How does asexual reproduction differ from sexual reproduction?

 

 

 

Be able to define and use the following terms:


 

M phase

homologous chromosomes

tetrad

nucleosome

genetic recombination

chromosome

asexual reproduction

haploid

mitosis

MTOC (MOC)

interphase

polar microtubules

diploid

G1 phase 

meiosis I

G2 phase 

kinetochore microtubules

clone

prophase

prophase I

sister chromatids

synaptonemal complex

synapsis

gametes

cytokinesis

cleavage furrow

spermatogenesis

meiosis

crossing-over

gametogenesis

chromatin

paternal homologue

gene

cell plate

maternal homologue

centriole

sexual reproduction

zygote

kinetochore

interkinesis

anaphase I

metaphase II

anaphase

telophase

oogenesis

anaphase II

centromere

S phase

metaphase I

meiosis II

chiasmata

metaphase plate

aster

prophase II

somatic cells

telophase I

telophase II

metaphase

cell cycle

mitotic spindle

      


                                                                         

 

Study Questions for Chapter 9: The Basic Principles of Heredity

 

1.        Be familiar with the types of pea plant crosses performed by Mendel.  Be able to predict the results of   simple monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (and testcrosses) in which the alleles interact by simple dominance.

 

2.        What are Mendel’s laws and explain what each one means.

 

3.        Briefly state Mendel’s principles of segregation and independent assortment.  How does gene linkage affect independent assortment?

 

4.        What is a sex chromosome? How is sex inherited in humans?  Be able to predict the outcome of crosses that involve X-linked (sex-linked) genes.

 

5.        Be able to predict the results of crosses that involve incomplete dominance, codominance, sex-linked genes, and multiple alleles.

 

6.        How do pleiotropic alleles or polygenes affect patterns of inheritance?

 

 

 

Be able to define and use the following terms:


 

heredity

F1 generation

trait

F2 generation

 

phenotype

monohybrid cross  

allele

homozygous

P generation

genotype

incomplete dominance

gene

heterozygous

dominant allele

genetic variation

independent  assortment

genetics

sex chromosomes

recessive allele

Punnett square

X chromosome

characteristic 

segregation

linked genes

dihybrid cross

Y chromosome

locus

crossing-over

test cross

codominance

X-linked gene

hybrid

polygenic inheritance

autosome

multiple alleles

sex chromosomes